"The Psychological Markers of the Basing Relation"
Abstract: Some philosophical concepts, such as knowledge, justification, and reasoning, are hybrid normative-psychological concepts. They are at least partially defined in terms of their standards of evaluation (normative), yet they are instantiated in psychological states and processes in human minds. How should we understand and identify such hybrid normative-psychological concepts? I propose a strategy using key psychological markers to identify hybrid normative-psychological concepts in the mind. I focus on one such concept in particular: the epistemic basing relation (a close relative of reasoning). I argue that the key marker strategy helps demonstrate that unconscious, uncontrolled mental states and processes are important components of our normative evaluation.