In the first part of the talk, I will look at how children reason about their own and others' competence and motivation, with implications for their task persistence, their moral and pragmatic judgments, and the ways they divide labor and allocate roles. In the second part of the talk, I will suggest that the sophistication of children's early reasoning about themselves and others in tension with some ideas about children's early emotion understanding (i.e., that it may be limited to distinctions based on valence and arousal, or focused on a small set of "basic" emotions). I will suggest instead that very young children make fine-grained distinctions among emotional reactions and map these onto their probable eliciting causes. I will conclude with a brief update on our new, online developmental laboratory (Lookit!), which has the potential to expand both the questions we ask, and the populations we reach.